Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as a raw material has been widely used in food packaging, toys, medical supplies, cosmetics, shoes, plastic doors and windows and other industries. PVC film, containers and other products are PVC resin as the main raw material, add plasticizers, stabilizers, anti-aging agents, flame retardants and other additives processing made. Due to PVC and its commonly used plasticizers. Phthalate II (2-) (DEHP) was listed by the International Centre for Cancer Research (IARC) as a carcinogenic substance in 2001, and vinyl chloride monomer (vinyl chloride free of polymer resin) remaining in PVC is classified as a human carcinogen by the International Centre for Research on cancer. It has also been reported that PVC incineration and deep buried treatment will produce two of dioxins, so the safe use of PVC has aroused public concern.
I: The residue of vinyl chloride due to the high toxicity of vinyl chloride, so at home and abroad for food packaging materials, medical devices, such as the use of vinyl chloride residue in PVC has long been specified. 1991, the International Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) stipulated that vinyl chloride monomer in food packaging materials should not be higher than 1.0ppm. The appendix to the EU Directive on plastic raw materials and their products in contact with food (2002/72/EC) Ⅱ lists a catalogue of monomers and other substances that allow the use of plastic raw materials and their products, the catalogue of which is PVC, with reference to "information on contact with food, raw materials containing vinyl chloride monomer and its products Directive (78/142/EEC) ". The appendix to the 78/142/EEC Directive Ⅰ that the content of vinyl chloride monomer in raw materials and their products is not greater than that of the 1ppm; appendix Ⅱ the content of vinyl chloride monomer in raw materials and their products and the content of vinyl chloride monomer released from raw materials and their products and transferred to food are gas chromatography, Method The test accuracy is 0.01ppm. China's current national standards on the residue of vinyl chloride monomer also have provisions, such as food packaging materials standard GB4803-94 "food containers, packaging materials with PVC resin sanitary standards" to stipulate that the residual amount of vinyl chloride monomer in PVC resin is 5ppm, GB9681-1988 " Sanitary standard for PVC molded products for food packaging, GB14944-1994 "sanitary standard for PVC bottle cap Gaskets and granules for food packaging", medical supplies standard GB14232.1-2004 "human blood and blood ingredients bag plastic container part 1th: Traditional blood Bag", GB15593-1995 "Blood transfusion (liquid) blow molding film bags with soft polyvinyl chloride plastic", GB10010-1988 "medical soft PVC Pipe" stipulates that the residue of vinyl chloride monomer in PVC molding products is not greater than 1ppm. October 2005, the State administration of quality Supervision, inspection and quarantine organized a spot check on the market sales of 44 kinds of PVC Food preservation film, its vinyl chloride monomer residue is not more than 1ppm, in line with national standards.
II. Provisions for the use of phthalate plasticizers phthalate (DINP), and the phthalic Acid II (2-ethyl) (DEHP), N-phthalate (Dnoo), phthalates (DIDP), phthalates (Ding), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), N-phthalate (the second-base), phthalate, phthalic acid Collectively referred to as phthalates (or salt), PVC products are commonly used plasticizers. Plasticizers are added to PVC to improve the softness, cold resistance and light stability of PVC. Different uses of PVC products, plasticizers are added in different quantities. For example, the weight of phthalates in PVC for food packaging is around 28%, and the flexible plastics used in toys reach 35%~40%. Studies have shown that PVC containing phthalates is easily released when it is caught in grease or at high temperatures above 100 ℃. Because of the different understanding of the harm of PVC containing phthalates, the scope and degree of its recognition are different, so the restrictions on the use of PVC containing phthalates are also different in various countries.
1. EU regulations: as early as the 70’s, the European Union issued a directive 76/769/EEC on phthalates (or salts) in toys and in childcare items. This directive has been amended more than 20 times. May 11, 2005, the EU, through the WTO secretariat, informed the latest amendment to the directive (Circular No. G/TBT/N/EEC/82). The amendment provides that the weight content of DEHP, DBP, BBP, DINP, DIDP and DNOP plasticizers in toys and other children's products is not greater than that of 0.1%;D EHP, DBP, BBP three plasticizers for all toys and children's products; DINP, DIDP and DNOP three plasticizers are banned from toys and plastic for children's products that may be placed in the mouth by children under the age of three and three. In addition, because DEHP can effectively maintain the fragrance in cosmetics, so many cosmetics in the production process are used to varying degrees of this substance. According to a study submitted by a Swedish laboratory in 2002, more than 70% of cosmetics in 34 world-class cosmetics contain DEHP. DEHP in cosmetics enter their bodies through the respiratory system and skin of women, potentially affecting the reproductive health of the baby boys they give birth to. At the end of 20th century, with the increase of female cosmetics, the incidence of reproductive malformations in boys has doubled by 10 times over the beginning of the century. As a result, many institutions prohibit the use of DEHP and other phthalates in cosmetics. However, the European Association of cosmetics, toiletries and spices considers the report to be inaccurate and misleading to consumers.
2. South Korea's regulations: the Korea Institute of Technical Standards (KATS) reported the toy inspection guidelines through WTO/TBT in January 2000, banning toys from using plastic materials containing DEHP, DINP, DEP, DBP, daily intake (ADI) exceeding the allowable degree of 0.15mg/kg/d. The Ministry of Environment of Korea banned the use of PVC coatings in August 1993 and banned the use of PVC shrinkage films in January 2001. In 2003, the provisions on packaging methods and packaging materials standards for products were amended, and from 2004, the packaging of eggs, quail eggs, hamburgers, sandwiches, sushi, etc., was prohibited from the use of packaging materials with PVC materials. Packaging materials for PVC coatings are also prohibited. South Korea Food and Drug Administration September 21, 2005 through the WTO/TBT Circular "regulations marking cosmetic Ingredients" amendment (Notification Number: G/TBT/N/KOR/96), cosmetics are prohibited from the use of ingredients in the catalogue to add DBP, DEHP and so on.
3. Japan's provisions of Japan's Food Hygiene Law rules 25th, paragraph 1th, stipulate that the raw materials of toys shall not use PVC synthetic resins with DEHP as raw materials. On the June 14, 2002, the Food Chemistry course of the Life and Health Bureau of the Ministry of Welfare, Labour and Welfare of Japan released the notice on the use of PVC packaged foods (WEIHUAFA No. 31st), recommending that PVC plastic film packaging products do not use phthalates containing substances. August 2, 2002 the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare also issued the "food, additives and other specifications of the amendment" notice (MHLW No. 267), it is recommended that toys and food utensils, container packaging do not use PVC materials containing DEHP. Both notices set a transitional period of one year, with effect from August 1, 2003. Although these two notices are recommendations, they will be implemented in earnest by Japanese companies. The range of toys "with mouth contact as the main nature" set out in the "amendments to the specifications of food and additives" stipulated in the No. 267 notice of the MHLW is much wider than the range of toys "used for sucking" stipulated by the European Union, and the age range of "milk toddlers" is also greater than the "under 3 years" as stipulated by the EU.
4. United States regulations/astmf963-96a 1th. 3.8 of the American Toy Safety standards stipulate that nipples, ringing bells and biting rings cannot contain DEHP and are tested according to the ASTM3421 test method, and the highest acceptable content in the test results is 3% of the total amount of solid matter. Code of federal Regulations The 21cfr§175.320 "resin coating and polymer coating for polyolefin films" lists phthalates such as polyvinyl chloride and its plasticizer DEHP in resins for polyolefin films that can be safely used on food. 21CFR179.45 there is no DEHP in the list of polyvinyl chloride and vinyl chloride and other organic agents listed in the "Packaging material requirements for prepackaged irradiated Foods" section. The two regulations are the basis for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) enforcement of food packaging materials. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (TBT/WTO) included a list of toxic and harmful chemical substances (DINP) in 2005 through a briefing note (Circular No. G/TBT/N/USA/122). There is still debate about the safety of DEHP in the United States. In July 2002, the FDA issued a circular that the use of medical supplies containing DEHP may poison newborns, adolescent men, pregnant or lactating women, and patients with large amounts of blood transfusions after heart transplants and bypass surgery. As a result, the FDA requires "the use of alternatives, if possible", "if PVC equipment containing DEHP must be used, measures should be taken to minimize patient exposure to DEHP". In February 2003, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) rejected a request from the National Environment Foundation and 11 other agencies for a ban on the sale of soft plastic toys for children under the age of 5, arguing that soft plastic toys or other soft plastic products have no visible health hazards for children younger than 5 years of age. Previously, the National Environment Foundation and 11 other agencies considered the plasticizer-phthalates in soft plastic toys to be toxic and harmful to health. In 2005, a team of researchers from the United States federal Government conducted a re-investigation into the safety of plasticizer DEHP in PVC medical devices. It was the 2nd survey in nearly 5 years. The survey found that Plasticizer DEHP was potentially harmful to certain children and pregnant women's exposure to the substance, but children over the age of 1 did not have much reason to worry about it and might not cause harm to healthy adults.