In the production of PVC products, plasticizer and PVC with the main role is to reduce the melting temperature of the polymer and melt viscosity, thus reducing its molding processing temperature, so that polymer products with softness, elasticity and low temperature resistance. In short, the main purpose is to improve the physical properties required.
PVC plasticizer is divided into many kinds, its role is also different as follows:
acid esters: The low temperature performance of fatty acid esters is very good,
but the solubility with polyvinyl chloride is poor, so it can only be used as a
low temperature resistance assistant plasticizer with phthalates. The most
commonly used varieties are DOA and DOS. DOA is a typical cold-resistant
industrial plasticizer, this product has high plasticizing efficiency, high
thermal plasticizing efficiency, small thermal discoloration, suitable for PVC,
vinyl chloride copolymer, polystyrene and synthetic rubber and other resin
industrial processing. It can give the product good low temperature softness
and light resistance, the product's hand sensibility is better. Most often used
with DOP, DBP and other main PVC plasticizers applied in cold-resistant
agricultural film, frozen food packaging film, wire and cable cladding layer,
artificial leather, plate, outdoor water pipes and so on. When used for
plasticizing paste, the initial viscosity of paste is low and the viscosity
stability is good. DOS is a raw material for the manufacture of nylon-610 fiber
and nylon-9 fiber. Its esters are PVC plasticizers in the plastics industry. It is
made by the separation of castor oil by heating saponification and heat
cracking. In addition to PVC cable
materials, but also widely used in PVC cold film, artificial leather and other
2. Phthalates: Phthalates are currently the most widely used main plasticizer, many varieties, high yield, well has light color, low toxicity, good electrical properties, small volatile parts, less odor, low temperature resistance and so on. Phthalates are mainly used in PVC materials, making PVC from hard plastic into elastic plastic, play the role of Plasticizer. It is widely used in toys, food packaging materials, medical blood bags and hoses, ethylene flooring and wallpapers, detergents, lubricants, personal care products (such as nail polish, hair sprays, soap and shampoo) and other hundreds of products, but the health of the human body has serious harm.
3. Phosphate ester: phosphate ester and polyvinyl chloride and other resins have good solubility, transparency, but toxicity. They are both PVC plasticizers and flame retardants. The low temperature performance of aromatic phosphoric acid vinegar is very poor, while the low temperature performance of aliphatic phosphate ester is better, but the thermal stability is poor, the durability is not as good as aromatic phosphate ester. The plasticizing effect of phosphate pvc plasticizers in PVC varies greatly depending on the structure. It is generally the plasticizing efficiency that decreases with the increase of aromatic structure in the molecule. And the dissolution force is the opposite. such as Sanfangki phosphate flame retardant performance is better than three alkyl phosphate, but the compatibility is not good, and alkyl phosphate diaryl ester flame retardant and plasticizing efficiency are better. The low temperature performance of alkyl phosphate is particularly good, but the volatility is higher, the low temperature performance of toluene phosphate ester is not good, but the volatile loss is smaller. Phosphate ester toxicity is generally strong, with the exception of a dioctyl phosphate ester, others can not be used as food packages.