The most common are: diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, sometimes also referred to as DOP),which have the well balanced properties described above. These plasticizers account for about 75% of all plasticisers used for PVC.
Antiplasticizers exhibit effects that are similar, but sometimes opposite, to those of plasticizers on polymer systems. The effect of plasticizers on elastic modulus is dependent on both temperature and plasticizer concentration. Below a certain concentration, referred to as the crossover concentration, a plasticizer can increase the modulus of a material. The material's glass transition temperature will decrease however, at all concentrations. In addition to a crossover concentration a crossover temperature exists. Below the crossover temperature the plasticizer will also increase the modulus. Antiplasticizers are any small molecule or oligomer additive which increases the modulus while decreasing the glass transition temperature.